HIT, town on the Euphrates, approximately 90 mi. (144 km.) W. of Baghdad; site of the Mesopotamian city of Is. An old karaite community, dating back to the 10th century at least, existed in Hit. Persecution and ill-treatment by the authorities brought about a gradual reduction of its size and by the middle of the 19th century it numbered only 20 families. The community was headed by the Muʿallim ("teacher, sage") whose home also served as the religious school and house of prayer (after the decrepit synagogue that had existed in the town was abandoned in the second half of the 19th century). The community went to Israel shortly after the establishment of the State, settling in Beersheba. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Ben-Jacob, Yehudei Bavel (1965), 318–20. (Abraham Haim) HITAḤADUT HITAḤADUT (Heb. הִתְאַחֲדוּת; full name Mifleget ha-Avodah ha-Ẓiyyonit "Hitaḥadut"), a Socialist-Zionist party formed in 1920 by the union of the Palestine Workers' Party, Ha-Po'el ha-Ẓa'ir, with a majority of the Ẓe'irei Zion groups in the Diaspora. Ẓe'irei Zion groups had been formed in Russia at the beginning of the 20th century by young Zionists who espoused the views of Ha-Po'el ha-Ẓa'ir and intended to join that party upon their settlement in Ereẓ Israel. The program of Ẓe'irei Zion, announced at its second congress in Petrograd in 1917, postulated the necessity to establish a Jewish labor commonwealth in the Land of Israel and redirect the Jewish masses in the Diaspora to productive occupations. Ẓe'irei Zion groups were organized in other East European countries, as well as in Germany and Austria (in these last two, under the name Ha-Po'el ha-Ẓa'ir). Later they were also formed in the U.S., Argentina, and South Africa. At the World Conference of Ha-Po'el ha-Ẓa'ir and the Ẓe'irei Zion in Prague (1920), most of the Ẓe'irei Zion groups united with Ha-Po'el ha-Ẓa'ir to form a Zionist party originally called the World Union of the Ha-Po'el ha-Ẓa'ir and Ẓe'irei Zion. At the Third World Conference of the Hitaḥadut in Berlin in 1922, however, its name was changed to Mifleget ha-Avodah ha-Ẓiyyonit "Hitaḥadut" (United Zionist Labor Party, "Hitaḥadut"). A few of the Ẓe'irei Zion groups which espoused a more left-wing, class-oriented   ideology formed a separate league, which eventually merged with Po'alei Zion . Hitaḥadut, which was represented in the World Zionist Organization and its various bodies, devoted its energies primarily to fostering the He-Ḥalutz (pioneering) movement in the Diaspora and stimulating immigration to Palestine. It functioned very effectively in both these spheres during the 1920s. It was also able to create an active pioneering movement in Soviet Russia, with a membership of thousands, despite the persecution of Zionism by the Soviet regime. In its Diaspora-oriented activities Hitaḥadut devoted its attention primarily to cultivating economically productive labor. The movement had representatives in the parliaments of several countries (Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Romania), in municipal councils, and in the governing bodies of Jewish communities. Unlike other Jewish socialist groups which supported Yiddish, Hitaḥadut championed the revival of Hebrew. It was one of the prime movers of the tarbut movement in Eastern Europe, and much of the teaching and administrative personnel of the Hebrew schools came from its ranks. Hitaḥadut also supported the founding of a special pioneering youth movement that crystallized in the late 1920s under the name gordonia . Hitaḥadut and Po'alei Zion usually appeared conjointly at Zionist Congresses, and when Ha-Po'el ha-Ẓa'ir and Aḥdut ha-Avodah in Palestine merged to form the Mifleget Po'alei Ereẓ Yisrael (mapai , 1930), the former two groups also amalgamated in 1932 at their world conference in Danzig, and formed the Iḥud Olami. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: S. Schiller, Principles of Labor Zionism (1928); A. Tartakower, in: Parteien und Stroemungen im Zionismus in Selbstdarstellungen (1931); idem, in: B. Vlavianos and F. Gross (eds.), Struggle for Tomorrow (1954); A. Levinson, Be-Reshit ha-Tenu'ah (1947); C. Arlosoroff, Der Juedische Volkssozialismus (1919); idem, Das Program der Hitachdut (1923). (Aryeh Tartakower)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • hit — hit …   Dictionnaire des rimes

  • hit — [hit] vt. hit, hitting [ME hitten < OE hittan < ON hitta, to hit upon, meet with < IE base * keid , to fall > Welsh cwydd, a fall] 1. to come against, usually with force; strike [the car hit the tree] 2. to give a blow to; strike;… …   English World dictionary

  • hit — ► VERB (hitting; past and past part. hit) 1) direct a blow at (someone or something) with one s hand or a tool or weapon. 2) propel (a ball) with a bat, racket, etc. 3) accidentally strike (part of one s body) against something. 4) (of a moving… …   English terms dictionary

  • Hit — and the acronym HIT may refer to:;Science/Engineering * Homogeneous Isotropic Turbulence, Fluid Dynamics ;Sport * Hit (baseball) * High intensity training, a form of strength training;Music * Hit (album), by Peter Gabriel * Hits (disambiguation) …   Wikipedia

  • Hit — Hit, v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Hit}; p. pr. & vb. n. {Hitting}.] [OE. hitten, hutten, of Scand. origin; cf. Dan. hitte to hit, find, Sw. & Icel. hitta.] 1. To reach with a stroke or blow; to strike or touch, usually with force; especially, to reach or …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Hit — Hit, v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Hit}; p. pr. & vb. n. {Hitting}.] [OE. hitten, hutten, of Scand. origin; cf. Dan. hitte to hit, find, Sw. & Icel. hitta.] 1. To reach with a stroke or blow; to strike or touch, usually with force; especially, to reach or …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Hit — Hit, n. 1. A striking against; the collision of one body against another; the stroke that touches anything. [1913 Webster] So he the famed Cilician fencer praised, And, at each hit, with wonder seems amazed. Dryden. [1913 Webster] 2. A stroke of… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

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  • Hit — puede referirse a: En inglés en el ámbito musical, se denomina hit a un sencillo exitoso. En este sentido, One hit wonder (en español: maravilla de un éxito) es un artista que generalmente sólo es conocido por un solo sencillo exitoso. 100… …   Wikipedia Español

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